Recovery Plan Ad Hoc Report results

Query parameters:

Entity ID=429
AND
Document ID=100026
Plan Title Plan Stage Plan Lead Region (FWS) Plan Lead Office (FWS) Species Common Name Species Scientific Name Action Priority Action Number Action Description Action Status Estimated Initiation Date Estimated Completion Date Action Lead Agencies Responsible Parties Work Types Labor Types Comments Implementation Activity Number Implementation Activity Description Implementation Activity Status Implementation Activity Estimated Initiation Date Implementation Activity Estimated Completion Date Implementation Activity Labor Types Implementation Activity Work Types Implementation Activity Responsible Parties Implementation Activity Comments Implementation Activity Species
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 2 ssbu-h1.2.1 Protect butterflies on private lands. Not Started Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Private industry, landowners, etc. Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Cost dependent upon type of protection provided. Action lead(s): private
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 2 ssbu-h1.2.2 Protect butterflies on public lands. Partially Complete FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, South Florida counties Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Cost dependent upon type of protection provided. Action lead(s): FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 2 ssbu-h1.2.3 Utilize Federal mechanisms to protect and prevent degradation of Schaus swallowtail butterfly habitat. Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 Other U.S. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Natural Resources Conservation Service , United States Coast Guard , U.S. Air Force Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Cost included in standard operating procedures of Federal agency's budget. Action lead(s): All Federal agencies
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 2 ssbu-h1.2.5 Avoid clearing or disturbing hammocks. Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, South Florida counties Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Task currently implemented on public lands and cost is included in responsible agency's budget. Action lead(s): FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 2 ssbu-s1.1 Determine the status of wild butterflies within current range. Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Public and private universities, Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Public and private universities, Other Research: Population Assessment, Research: Population Surveys, Research: Demographic Studies, Management: Population Monitoring Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract FDEP, University of Florida, NPS and various partners continue to monitor Schaus populations within Biscayne National Park and northern Key Largo during April thru June (spring brood) and Sept (late summer brood). On Key Largo 60, 36, 53, and 117 adults were documented during 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018, respectively. Within Biscayne NP 308, 62, 24 and several hundred (waiting on final tally) adults were observed in 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018 respectively. Studies continue to follow captive released larvae in the field to evaluate natural history (help determine mortality factors). Action lead(s): FWS, NPS, universities, FWC, FDEP
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 2 ssbu-s2.2 Utilize Federal regulatory mechanisms for protection. Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 Other U.S. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Natural Resources Conservation Service , United States Coast Guard , U.S. Air Force Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Cost included in standard operating procedures of Federal agency's budget. Action lead(s): All Federal agencies
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 2 ssbu-s2.4.2 Reduce the effects of habitat loss, destruction, and modifications on Schaus swallowtail butterflies in the Florida Keys. Partially Complete FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, South Florida counties Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Cost dependent upon type of protection provided. Action lead(s): FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 2 ssbu-s2.4.3 Eliminate illegal collecting of the Schaus swallowtail butterfly. Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Task currently conducted and cost is included in responsible agency's budget. Action lead(s): FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 2 ssbu-s3.2.1 Determine subpopulations vulnerable to extinction. Ongoing Current FY 2012 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Public and private universities, Other Research: Population Assessment, Research: Population Surveys, Research: Demographic Studies Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract Surveys are ongoing to determine Schaus population size and genetic viability within its' remaining range. Action lead(s): universities, NPS, FWS, FWC, FDEP
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 2 ssbu-s4.2 Continue long-term monitoring of the Schaus swallowtail butterfly. Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Non-governmental organizations, Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge, South Florida state parks U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Non-governmental organizations, Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge, South Florida counties, South Florida state parks, Public and private universities, Other Research: Demographic Studies, Management: Population Monitoring Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert Schaus' populations were closely monitored in the field during 1980s and 1990s, after which time surveys became minimal (a few sampling dates per spring) due to lack of funding. Survey data that was collected in the 2000s indicated extremely low Schaus' abundance. As a result, since 2011, UF and various partners have again closely monitored the spring Schaus' flight season, in addition, beginning in 2014 surveys have also been conducted to monitor sporadic occurences of a second (fall) flight season throughout BNP and northern Key Largo. Action lead(s): FDEP and FWS (Key Largo), universities and NPS (Biscayne NP)
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h1.1.1 Continue Federal acquisition efforts. Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Cost dependent upon specific site and amount of land acquired. Action lead(s): FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h1.1.2 Support State, local and non-governmental organizations acquisition efforts. Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, South Florida counties Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Cost dependent upon specific site and amount of land acquired. Action lead(s): FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h1.2.4 Coordinate with State and Monroe County agencies and private entities to develop management actions to protect Schaus swallowtail butterfly habitat. Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, South Florida counties Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Action lead(s): FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h1.2.6 Restrict access to Schaus swallowtail butterfly habitat. Ongoing Current U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Task currently conducted and cost is included in responsible agency's budget. Action lead(s): FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h1.2.7 Establish and protect 500 m buffers around priority habitat. Not Started U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Cost dependent upon type of protection provided. Action lead(s): FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h1.2.8 Prevent fires. Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Division of Forestry Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Task currently implemented on public lands and cost is included in responsible agency's budget. Action lead(s): FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h1.2.9 Eliminate exotic vegetation. Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, South Florida state parks, Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected In 2012, the FWS Coastal Program funded an effort to conduct habitat restoration on Elliott and Adams Keys (planting large amounts of Schaus hostplants) within Biscayne NP. Post-project monitoring indicated the exotic vegetation was reduced and hostplant reintroductions were success in some areas. However, disturbance from Hurricane Irma resulted in substantial availability of fresh hostplant (torchwood) growth and subsequent high densities of Schaus’ in 2018-19. In 2016, FDEP coordinated with the Service to restore over 6 acres of disturbed tropical hardwood hammock within Dagny Johnson Hammock Botanical Site on northern Key Largo. Restoration has been a success with increased hostplant and hardwood hammock vegetation. Schaus' abundance has also increased onsite to the point where the species can be found there, and further south. In 2019 spring flight period 361 adult Schaus’ were observed across Key Largo, as a result of prior captive releases, restoration work and but from new hostplant growth and availability brought from Irma disturbance (as occurred within Biscayne NP). Prior to these efforts Schaus' was rarely observed this far south of the island. Similar exotic vegetation and debris removal actions were planned on the Service side (Croc Lake NWR) of Key Largo for 2017-18. However, due to natural clearing and thinning of vegetation on northern Key Largo from Irma, natural vegetation was not required. As discussed above, monitoring has indicated that Schaus’ are responding favorably due to increased new growth (for larvae) in now thinned areas as light can now penetrate deeper into the canopy within the Refuge from debris removal, but especially from new hostplant growth and availability brought from Irma disturbance. Based on the success of Schaus’ distribution and abundance within Biscayne National Park and Key Largo, and additional reintroductions on Lignumvitae Key State Park in 2019, new areas were analyzed for future releases. Availability of torchwood (the primary hostplant) is a limiting factor in selecting sites for swallowtail re-establishment. Since torchwood has been lost in many locations, UF and Fairchild Tropical Gardens began hardwood hammock restoration efforts, including planting torchwood, at locations within the Schaus’ historic range. However, torchwood is slow growing and it will likely be many year before the Schaus’ will either naturally disperse to these areas or are reintroduced to them. Action lead(s): UF, FDEP, FWC and FWS, NPS, (Biscayne NP)
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h2.1 Restore Schaus swallowtail butterfly habitat. Partially Complete FY 2012 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected In 2012, the FWS Coastal Program funded an effort to conduct habitat restoration on Elliott and Adams Keys (planting large amounts of Schaus hostplants) within Biscayne NP. Post-project monitoring indicated the exotic vegetation was reduced and hostplant reintroductions were success in some areas. However, disturbance from Hurricane Irma resulted in substantial availability of fresh hostplant (torchwood) growth and subsequent high densities of Schaus’ in 2018-19. In 2016, FDEP coordinated with the Service to restore over 6 acres of disturbed tropical hardwood hammock within Dagny Johnson Hammock Botanical Site on northern Key Largo. Restoration has been a success with increased hostplant and hardwood hammock vegetation. Schaus' abundance has also increased onsite to the point where the species can be found there, and further south. In 2019 spring flight period 361 adult Schaus’ were observed across Key Largo, as a result of prior captive releases, restoration work and but from new hostplant growth and availability brought from Irma disturbance (as occurred within Biscayne NP). Prior to these efforts Schaus' was rarely observed this far south of the island. Similar exotic vegetation and debris removal actions were planned on the Service side (Croc Lake NWR) of Key Largo for 2017-18. However, due to natural clearing and thinning of vegetation on northern Key Largo from Irma, natural vegetation was not required. As discussed above, monitoring has indicated that Schaus’ are responding favorably due to increased new growth (for larvae) in now thinned areas as light can now penetrate deeper into the canopy within the Refuge from debris removal, but especially from new hostplant growth and availability brought from Irma disturbance. Based on the success of Schaus’ distribution and abundance within Biscayne National Park and Key Largo, and additional reintroductions on Lignumvitae Key State Park in 2019, new areas were analyzed for future releases. Availability of torchwood (the primary hostplant) is a limiting factor in selecting sites for swallowtail re-establishment. Since torchwood has been lost in many locations, UF and Fairchild Tropical Gardens began hardwood hammock restoration efforts, including planting torchwood, at locations within the Schaus’ historic range. However, torchwood is slow growing and it will likely be many year before the Schaus’ will either naturally disperse to these areas or are reintroduced to them. Action lead(s): UF, FDEP, FWC and FWS, NPS, (Biscayne NP)
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h2.2 Improve habitat by planting or encouraging native plant species. Partially Complete FY 2012 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge, South Florida state parks U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Private industry, landowners, etc., Public and private universities Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected In 2012, the FWS Coastal Program funded an effort to conduct habitat restoration on Elliott and Adams Keys (planting large amounts of Schaus hostplants) within Biscayne NP. Post-project monitoring indicated the exotic vegetation was reduced and hostplant reintroductions were success in some areas. However, disturbance from Hurricane Irma resulted in substantial availability of fresh hostplant (torchwood) growth and subsequent high densities of Schaus’ in 2018-19. In 2016, FDEP coordinated with the Service to restore over 6 acres of disturbed tropical hardwood hammock within Dagny Johnson Hammock Botanical Site on northern Key Largo. Restoration has been a success with increased hostplant and hardwood hammock vegetation. Schaus' abundance has also increased onsite to the point where the species can be found there, and further south. In 2019 spring flight period 361 adult Schaus’ were observed across Key Largo, as a result of prior captive releases, restoration work and but from new hostplant growth and availability brought from Irma disturbance (as occurred within Biscayne NP). Prior to these efforts Schaus' was rarely observed this far south of the island. Similar exotic vegetation and debris removal actions were planned on the Service side (Croc Lake NWR) of Key Largo for 2017-18. However, due to natural clearing and thinning of vegetation on northern Key Largo from Irma, natural vegetation was not required. As discussed above, monitoring has indicated that Schaus’ are responding favorably due to increased new growth (for larvae) in now thinned areas as light can now penetrate deeper into the canopy within the Refuge from debris removal, but especially from new hostplant growth and availability brought from Irma disturbance. In 2019, UF and Fairchild Tropical Gardens began to harvest torchwood seeds and cuttings in order propagate the plant for use in tropical hardwood hammock habitat restoration projects, specifically at historic Schaus’ locations in Miami-Dade County. Based on the success of Schaus’ distribution and abundance within Biscayne National Park and Key Largo, and additional reintroductions on Lignumvitae Key State Park in 2019, new areas were analyzed for future releases. Availability of torchwood (the primary hostplant) is a limiting factor in selecting sites for swallowtail re-establishment. Since torchwood has been lost in many locations, UF and Fairchild Tropical Gardens began hardwood hammock restoration efforts, including planting torchwood, at locations within the Schaus’ historic range. However, torchwood is slow growing and it will likely be many year before the Schaus’ will either naturally disperse to these areas or are reintroduced to them. Action lead(s): UF, FDEP, FWC Fairchild Tropical Gardens, and FWS, NPS, (Biscayne NP)
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h2.3 Improve habitat by conducting selective trimming. Not Started U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Cost is per acre (ex. 0.5/acre); Total cost dependent upon number of acres improved. Action lead(s): FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h2.4 Remove exotic vegetation. Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, South Florida state parks, Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, South Florida state parks, Other Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected In 2012, the FWS Coastal Program funded an effort to conduct habitat restoration on Elliott and Adams Keys (planting large amounts of Schaus hostplants) within Biscayne NP. Post-project monitoring indicated the exotic vegetation was reduced and hostplant reintroductions were success in some areas. However, disturbance from Hurricane Irma resulted in substantial availability of fresh hostplant (torchwood) growth and subsequent high densities of Schaus’ in 2018-19. In 2016, FDEP coordinated with the Service to restore over 6 acres of disturbed tropical hardwood hammock within Dagny Johnson Hammock Botanical Site on northern Key Largo. Restoration has been a success with increased hostplant and hardwood hammock vegetation. Schaus' abundance has also increased onsite to the point where the species can be found there, and further south. In 2019 spring flight period 361 adult Schaus’ were observed across Key Largo, as a result of prior captive releases, restoration work and but from new hostplant growth and availability brought from Irma disturbance (as occurred within Biscayne NP). Prior to these efforts Schaus' was rarely observed this far south of the island. Similar exotic vegetation and debris removal actions were planned on the Service side (Croc Lake NWR) of Key Largo for 2017-18. However, due to natural clearing and thinning of vegetation on northern Key Largo from Irma, natural vegetation was not required. As discussed above, monitoring has indicated that Schaus’ are responding favorably due to increased new growth (for larvae) in now thinned areas as light can now penetrate deeper into the canopy within the Refuge from debris removal, but especially from new hostplant growth and availability brought from Irma disturbance. Based on the success of Schaus’ distribution and abundance within Biscayne National Park and Key Largo, and additional reintroductions on Lignumvitae Key State Park in 2019, new areas were analyzed for future releases. Availability of torchwood (the primary hostplant) is a limiting factor in selecting sites for swallowtail re-establishment. Since torchwood has been lost in many locations, UF and Fairchild Tropical Gardens began hardwood hammock restoration efforts, including planting torchwood, at locations within the Schaus’ historic range. However, torchwood is slow growing and it will likely be many year before the Schaus’ will either naturally disperse to these areas or are reintroduced to them. Action lead(s): UF, FDEP, FWC and FWS, NPS, (Biscayne NP)
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h2.5 Remove trash debris. Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge, South Florida state parks U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, South Florida state parks, Other Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected In 2012, the FWS Coastal Program funded an effort to conduct habitat restoration on Elliott and Adams Keys (planting large amounts of Schaus hostplants) within Biscayne NP. Post-project monitoring indicated the exotic vegetation was reduced and hostplant reintroductions were success in some areas. However, disturbance from Hurricane Irma resulted in substantial availability of fresh hostplant (torchwood) growth and subsequent high densities of Schaus’ in 2018-19. In 2016, FDEP coordinated with the Service to restore over 6 acres of disturbed tropical hardwood hammock within Dagny Johnson Hammock Botanical Site on northern Key Largo. Restoration has been a success with increased hostplant and hardwood hammock vegetation. Schaus' abundance has also increased onsite to the point where the species can be found there, and further south. In 2019 spring flight period 361 adult Schaus’ were observed across Key Largo, as a result of prior captive releases, restoration work and but from new hostplant growth and availability brought from Irma disturbance (as occurred within Biscayne NP). Prior to these efforts Schaus' was rarely observed this far south of the island. Similar exotic vegetation and debris removal actions were planned on the Service side (Croc Lake NWR) of Key Largo for 2017-18. However, due to natural clearing and thinning of vegetation on northern Key Largo from Irma, natural vegetation was not required. As discussed above, monitoring has indicated that Schaus’ are responding favorably due to increased new growth (for larvae) in now thinned areas as light can now penetrate deeper into the canopy within the Refuge from debris removal, but especially from new hostplant growth and availability brought from Irma disturbance. Based on the success of Schaus’ distribution and abundance within Biscayne National Park and Key Largo, and additional reintroductions on Lignumvitae Key State Park in 2019, new areas were analyzed for future releases. Availability of torchwood (the primary hostplant) is a limiting factor in selecting sites for swallowtail re-establishment. Since torchwood has been lost in many locations, UF and Fairchild Tropical Gardens began hardwood hammock restoration efforts, including planting torchwood, at locations within the Schaus’ historic range. However, torchwood is slow growing and it will likely be many year before the Schaus’ will either naturally disperse to these areas or are reintroduced to them. Action lead(s): UF, FDEP, FWC and FWS, NPS, (Biscayne NP)
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h3.1.1 Determine minimum area requirements. Not Started Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Public and private universities Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Action lead(s): universities
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h3.1.2 Identify host plants, their status and role in the hammock community, effects from natural factors, and how the Schaus swallowtail butterfly is dependent on them. Partially Complete FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Public and private universities Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Action lead(s): FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h3.1.3 Determine the effects of forest canopy structure and light conditions on the Schaus swallowtail butterfly. Not Started Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Public and private universities Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Action lead(s): universities
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h3.1.4 Investigate the effect of habitat change. Not Started U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Public and private universities Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Action lead(s): FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h3.2.1 Investigate flight patterns and the spatial utilization of habitat to identify important core areas and corridors. Not Started FY 2013 Public and private universities U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Public and private universities Research Labor type not yet selected Action lead(s): UF
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h3.2.2 Determine if the amount and configuration of habitat is sufficient to support a stable or increasing population of Schaus swallowtail butterflies.. Ongoing Current FY 2013 Public and private universities U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Public and private universities Research Labor type not yet selected Action lead(s): NPS and UF
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h4.1 Conduct long-term monitoring of habitat patches. Ongoing Current FY 2012 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge, South Florida state parks U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, South Florida counties Research Labor type not yet selected In 2012, the FWS Coastal Program funded an effort to conduct habitat restoration on Elliott and Adams Keys (planting large amounts of Schaus hostplants) within Biscayne NP. Post-project monitoring indicated the exotic vegetation was reduced and hostplant reintroductions were success in some areas. However, disturbance from Hurricane Irma resulted in substantial availability of fresh hostplant (torchwood) growth and subsequent high densities of Schaus’ in 2018-19. In 2016, FDEP coordinated with the Service to restore over 6 acres of disturbed tropical hardwood hammock within Dagny Johnson Hammock Botanical Site on northern Key Largo. Restoration has been a success with increased hostplant and hardwood hammock vegetation. Schaus' abundance has also increased onsite to the point where the species can be found there, and further south. In 2019 spring flight period 361 adult Schaus’ were observed across Key Largo, as a result of prior captive releases, restoration work and but from new hostplant growth and availability brought from Irma disturbance (as occurred within Biscayne NP). Prior to these efforts Schaus' was rarely observed this far south of the island. Similar exotic vegetation and debris removal actions were planned on the Service side (Croc Lake NWR) of Key Largo for 2017-18. However, due to natural clearing and thinning of vegetation on northern Key Largo from Irma, natural vegetation was not required. As discussed above, monitoring has indicated that Schaus’ are responding favorably due to increased new growth (for larvae) in now thinned areas as light can now penetrate deeper into the canopy within the Refuge from debris removal, but especially from new hostplant growth and availability brought from Irma disturbance. Based on the success of Schaus’ distribution and abundance within Biscayne National Park and Key Largo, and additional reintroductions on Lignumvitae Key State Park in 2019, new areas were analyzed for future releases. Availability of torchwood (the primary hostplant) is a limiting factor in selecting sites for swallowtail re-establishment. Since torchwood has been lost in many locations, UF and Fairchild Tropical Gardens began hardwood hammock restoration efforts, including planting torchwood, at locations within the Schaus’ historic range. However, torchwood is slow growing and it will likely be many year before the Schaus’ will either naturally disperse to these areas or are reintroduced to them. Action lead(s): UF, FDEP, FWC and FWS, NPS, (Biscayne NP)
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h4.2 Monitor primary and edge forest habitat. Not Started U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, South Florida counties Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Action lead(s): FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h4.3 Monitor ongoing and proposed habitat restoration efforts. Ongoing Current FY 2012 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Public and private universities, Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Public and private universities, Other Management Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract In 2012, the FWS Coastal Program funded an effort to conduct habitat restoration on Elliott and Adams Keys (planting large amounts of Schaus hostplants) within Biscayne NP. Post-project monitoring indicated the exotic vegetation was reduced and hostplant reintroductions were success in some areas. However, disturbance from Hurricane Irma resulted in substantial availability of fresh hostplant (torchwood) growth and subsequent high densities of Schaus’ in 2018-19. In 2016, FDEP coordinated with the Service to restore over 6 acres of disturbed tropical hardwood hammock within Dagny Johnson Hammock Botanical Site on northern Key Largo. Restoration has been a success with increased hostplant and hardwood hammock vegetation. Schaus' abundance has also increased onsite to the point where the species can be found there, and further south. In 2019 spring flight period 361 adult Schaus’ were observed across Key Largo, as a result of prior captive releases, restoration work and but from new hostplant growth and availability brought from Irma disturbance (as occurred within Biscayne NP). Prior to these efforts Schaus' was rarely observed this far south of the island. Similar exotic vegetation and debris removal actions were planned on the Service side (Croc Lake NWR) of Key Largo for 2017-18. However, due to natural clearing and thinning of vegetation on northern Key Largo from Irma, natural vegetation was not required. As discussed above, monitoring has indicated that Schaus’ are responding favorably due to increased new growth (for larvae) in now thinned areas as light can now penetrate deeper into the canopy within the Refuge from debris removal, but especially from new hostplant growth and availability brought from Irma disturbance. Based on the success of Schaus’ distribution and abundance within Biscayne National Park and Key Largo, and additional reintroductions on Lignumvitae Key State Park in 2019, new areas were analyzed for future releases. Availability of torchwood (the primary hostplant) is a limiting factor in selecting sites for swallowtail re-establishment. Since torchwood has been lost in many locations, UF and Fairchild Tropical Gardens began hardwood hammock restoration efforts, including planting torchwood, at locations within the Schaus’ historic range. However, torchwood is slow growing and it will likely be many year before the Schaus’ will either naturally disperse to these areas or are reintroduced to them. Action lead(s): UF, FDEP, FWC and FWS, NPS, (Biscayne NP)
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-h5.0 Increase public awareness of Schaus swallowtail butterfly habitat and instill stewardship. Ongoing Current FY 2012 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Public and private universities, Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Non-governmental organizations, Public and private universities, Other Other: Information and Education Labor type not yet selected In 2012, the FWS Coastal Program funded an effort to conduct habitat restoration on Elliott and Adams Keys (planting large amounts of Schaus hostplants) within Biscayne NP. Post-project monitoring indicated the exotic vegetation was reduced and hostplant reintroductions were success in some areas. However, disturbance from Hurricane Irma resulted in substantial availability of fresh hostplant (torchwood) growth and subsequent high densities of Schaus’ in 2018-19. In 2016, FDEP coordinated with the Service to restore over 6 acres of disturbed tropical hardwood hammock within Dagny Johnson Hammock Botanical Site on northern Key Largo. Restoration has been a success with increased hostplant and hardwood hammock vegetation. Schaus' abundance has also increased onsite to the point where the species can be found there, and further south. In 2019 spring flight period 361 adult Schaus’ were observed across Key Largo, as a result of prior captive releases, restoration work and but from new hostplant growth and availability brought from Irma disturbance (as occurred within Biscayne NP). Prior to these efforts Schaus' was rarely observed this far south of the island. Similar exotic vegetation and debris removal actions were planned on the Service side (Croc Lake NWR) of Key Largo for 2017-18. However, due to natural clearing and thinning of vegetation on northern Key Largo from Irma, natural vegetation was not required. As discussed above, monitoring has indicated that Schaus’ are responding favorably due to increased new growth (for larvae) in now thinned areas as light can now penetrate deeper into the canopy within the Refuge from debris removal, but especially from new hostplant growth and availability brought from Irma disturbance. Based on the success of Schaus’ distribution and abundance within Biscayne National Park and Key Largo, and additional reintroductions on Lignumvitae Key State Park in 2019, new areas were analyzed for future releases. Availability of torchwood (the primary hostplant) is a limiting factor in selecting sites for swallowtail re-establishment. Since torchwood has been lost in many locations, UF and Fairchild Tropical Gardens began hardwood hammock restoration efforts, including planting torchwood, at locations within the Schaus’ historic range. However, torchwood is slow growing and it will likely be many year before the Schaus’ will either naturally disperse to these areas or are reintroduced to them. Action lead(s): UF, FDEP, FWC and FWS, NPS, (Biscayne NP)
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s1.2 Determine the status of captive-reared Schaus swallowtail butterflies, annually on a forward basis. Ongoing Current FY 2012 Monroe County Land Authority U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Public and private universities, Other Research: Propagation, Research: Reintroduction Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract Emergency action initiated in spring 2012 to grant University of Florida permission to collect Schaus eggs and resume captive rearing-related efforts. Approximately 70 adult butterflies were reared from eggs collected in 2013, of these 50 were released during the 2014 flight season, while 20 were retained for lab rearing to produce additional stock for the 2015 season. Approximately 900 individuals (471 adults, 378 late instar larvae) were reared from 2014 stock. These individuals were released during spring 2015 within BNP and northern Key Largo. In 2015, a total of 308 and 60 adults were observed on Biscayne NP and Key Largo, respectively. Additional individuals (51 larvae) were released on Elliott Key during 2016. In 2016: 62 adults were seen in the wild on BNP and 36 Key Largo. In 2017: 53 adults were observed on Key Largo and 24 Schaus adults were observed on BNP. Due to the low numbers observed in BNP in both 2016 and 2017, limited captive rearing was conducted in summer 2017. However, naturally occurring Schaus’ numbers increased to 438 individuals within the stronghold regions (Elliott Key within BNP and northern Key Largo). Therefore available captive bred stock will be released on additional islands within BNP, as well as at two locations on central Key Largo, such john Pennekamp State Park within the subspecies historic range. Over 350 adult Schaus’ were documented on northern and central Key Largo during the 2019 flight season, as well several hundred within Biscayne National Park. As a result of Schaus’ establishment on Key Largo and Biscayne National Park during 2019, captive reared stock was releases on Lignumvitae Key State Park, which represented returning the subspecies the southern extent of its historic range in the central keys. Action lead(s): Action lead(s): UF, FDEP, FWC and FWS, NPS, (Biscayne NP)
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s1.3.1 Survey butterflies along ecotonal regions. Not Started Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Public and private universities Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Action lead(s): universities
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s1.3.2 Survey the amount of light or closed canopy and its effects on species numbers, etc. Not Started Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Public and private universities Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Action lead(s): universities
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s1.3.3 Determine species composition and abundance between different stands of forest. Not Started Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Public and private universities Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Action lead(s): universities
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s1.3.4 Survey hammock microclimate during breeding and flight time. Not Started Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Public and private universities Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Action lead(s): universities
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s1.3.5 Survey the distribution of adult butterflies and the distribution of host plants. Ongoing Current FY 2012 Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Public and private universities Research Labor type not yet selected Emergency action initiated in spring 2012 to grant University of Florida permission to collect Schaus eggs and resume captive rearing-related efforts. Approximately 70 adult butterflies were reared from eggs collected in 2013, of these 50 were released during the 2014 flight season, while 20 were retained for lab rearing to produce additional stock for the 2015 season. Approximately 900 individuals (471 adults, 378 late instar larvae) were reared from 2014 stock. These individuals were released during spring 2015 within BNP and northern Key Largo. In 2015, a total of 308 and 60 adults were observed on Biscayne NP and Key Largo, respectively. Additional individuals (51 larvae) were released on Elliott Key during 2016. In 2016: 62 adults were seen in the wild on BNP and 36 Key Largo. In 2017: 53 adults were observed on Key Largo and 24 Schaus adults were observed on BNP. Due to the low numbers observed in BNP in both 2016 and 2017, limited captive rearing was conducted in summer 2017. However, naturally occurring Schaus’ numbers increased to 438 individuals within the stronghold regions (Elliott Key within BNP and northern Key Largo). Therefore available captive bred stock will be released on additional islands within BNP, as well as at two locations on central Key Largo, such john Pennekamp State Park within the subspecies historic range. Over 350 adult Schaus’ were documented on northern and central Key Largo during the 2019 flight season, as well several hundred within Biscayne National Park. As a result of Schaus’ establishment on Key Largo and Biscayne National Park during 2019, captive reared stock was releases on Lignumvitae Key State Park, which represented returning the subspecies the southern extent of its historic range in the central keys. Action lead(s): Action lead(s): UF, FDEP, FWC and FWS, NPS, (Biscayne NP)
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s1.4 Determine the status of habitat at release sites. Ongoing Current FY 2014 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Public and private universities Research Labor type not yet selected Approximately 70 adult butterflies were reared from eggs collected in 2013, of these 50 were released during the 2014 flight season, while 20 were retained for lab rearing to produce additional stock for the 2015 season. Approximately 900 individuals (471 adults, 378 late instar larvae) were reared from 2014 stock. These individuals were released during spring 2015 within BNP and northern Key Largo. In 2015, a total of 308 and 60 adults were observed on Biscayne NP and Key Largo, respectively. Additional individuals (51 larvae) were released on Elliott Key during 2016. In 2016: 62 adults were seen in the wild in BNP and 36 on Key Largo In 2017: 53 adults were observed on Key Largo and 24 Schaus adults were observed on BNP. Due to the low numbers observed in BNP in both 2016 and 2017, limited captive rearing was conducted in summer 2017. However, wild Schaus’ populations in stronghold locations (Elliott Key BNP) and northern Key Largo were stable in spring 2018. Therefore available captive bred stock will be released on additional islands within BNP, as well as at two locations on central Key Largo – all within the subspecies historic range. Action lead(Emergency action initiated in spring 2012 to grant University of Florida permission to collect Schaus eggs and resume captive rearing-related efforts. Approximately 70 adult butterflies were reared from eggs collected in 2013, of these 50 were released during the 2014 flight season, while 20 were retained for lab rearing to produce additional stock for the 2015 season. Approximately 900 individuals (471 adults, 378 late instar larvae) were reared from 2014 stock. These individuals were released during spring 2015 within BNP and northern Key Largo. In 2015, a total of 308 and 60 adults were observed on Biscayne NP and Key Largo, respectively. Additional individuals (51 larvae) were released on Elliott Key during 2016. In 2016: 62 adults were seen in the wild on BNP and 36 Key Largo. In 2017: 53 adults were observed on Key Largo and 24 Schaus adults were observed on BNP. Due to the low numbers observed in BNP in both 2016 and 2017, limited captive rearing was conducted in summer 2017. However, naturally occurring Schaus’ numbers increased to 438 individuals within the stronghold regions (Elliott Key within BNP and northern Key Largo). Therefore available captive bred stock will be released on additional islands within BNP, as well as at two locations on central Key Largo, such john Pennekamp State Park within the subspecies historic range. Over 350 adult Schaus’ were documented on northern and central Key Largo during the 2019 flight season, as well several hundred within Biscayne National Park. As a result of Schaus’ establishment on Key Largo and Biscayne National Park during 2019, captive reared stock was releases on Lignumvitae Key State Park, which represented returning the subspecies the southern extent of its historic range in the central keys. Action lead(s): Action lead(s): UF, FDEP, FWC and FWS, NPS, (Biscayne NP)
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s1.5 Survey other butterfly populations in occupied Schaus swallowtail butterfly habitat. Ongoing Current FY 2012 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Non-governmental organizations Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected University of Florida and NPS continue to monitor Schaus populations, and other butterflies, within Biscayne National Park and northern Key Largo. Action lead(s): UF, FDEP, FWC and FWS, NPS, (Biscayne NP)
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s1.6 Maintain and improve the GIS database for butterflies information. Ongoing Current U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Public and private universities Work type not yet selected Species Expert Action lead(s): FWS, UF, FWC
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s1.7 Conduct presence/absence surveys for Schaus swallowtail butterflies in suitable habitat throughout the Florida Keys. Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Public and private universities, Other Research: Population Assessment, Research: Population Surveys Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract Action lead(s): FWS, UF, FWC, FDEP, NPS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s2.1 Assign a biologist responsibility for implementing recovery actions for the threatened or endangered species of the upper Florida Keys and Miami-Dade County (Deering Estate and Biscayne National Park). Complete FY 2000 - FY 2004 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected FWS biologist assigned at the South Florida Ecological Services Office. Action lead(s): FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s2.3 Provide Schaus swallowtail butterfly information to the Federal, State, county, and city agencies. Ongoing Current FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Non-governmental organizations Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Action lead(s): FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s2.4.1 Eliminate the negative effects of pesticides and other biocides. Partially Complete FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, South Florida counties Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Pesticide use prohibited through significant portions of this species range. Action lead(s): FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s2.4.4 Minimize the effects of contaminants on the Schaus swallowtail butterfly. Partially Complete FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, South Florida counties Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Spraying prohibited in range of ssbu on public lands. Action lead(s): FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s2.5.1 Develop criteria for captive propagation protocol. Complete FY 2012 FY 2013 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Public and private universities, Other Research: Propagation, Research: Reintroduction Species Expert, Contract Emergency action initiated in spring 2012 to grant University of Florida permission to collect Schaus eggs and resume captive rearing-related efforts. Approximately 70 adult butterflies were reared from eggs collected in 2013, of these 50 were released during the 2014 flight season, while 20 were retained for lab rearing to produce additional stock for the 2015 season. Approximately 900 individuals (471 adults, 378 late instar larvae) were reared from 2014 stock. These individuals were released during spring 2015 within BNP and northern Key Largo. In 2015, a total of 308 and 60 adults were observed on Biscayne NP and Key Largo, respectively. Additional individuals (51 larvae) were released on Elliott Key during 2016. In 2016: 62 adults were seen in the wild on BNP and 36 Key Largo. In 2017: 53 adults were observed on Key Largo and 24 Schaus adults were observed on BNP. Due to the low numbers observed in BNP in both 2016 and 2017, limited captive rearing was conducted in summer 2017. However, naturally occurring Schaus’ numbers increased to 438 individuals within the stronghold regions (Elliott Key within BNP and northern Key Largo). Therefore available captive bred stock will be released on additional islands within BNP, as well as at two locations on central Key Largo, such john Pennekamp State Park within the subspecies historic range. Over 350 adult Schaus’ were documented on northern and central Key Largo during the 2019 flight season, as well several hundred within Biscayne National Park. As a result of Schaus’ establishment on Key Largo and Biscayne National Park during 2019, captive reared stock was releases on Lignumvitae Key State Park, which represented returning the subspecies the southern extent of its historic range in the central keys. Action lead(s): UF, FDEP, FWC and FWS, NPS, (Biscayne NP)
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s2.5.2 Develop threshold criteria to act as a trigger for future captive propagations. Complete FY 2013 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Public and private universities, Other Research: Population Assessment, Research: Demographic Studies, Research: Propagation, Research: Reintroduction Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract Action lead(s): UF, NPS, FWC, FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s2.5.3 All future efforts to captively breed Schaus swallowtail butterflies should be conducted in situ in as natural conditions as possible. Ongoing Current FY 2013 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Public and private universities Research: Propagation, Research: Reintroduction Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract Cost applicable only to those years captive propagation is conducted. Action lead(s): FWS, universities
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s2.5.4 Conduct appropriate health screenings of all release stock prior to reintroduction. Ongoing Current FY 2013 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Public and private universities Research: Propagation, Research: Reintroduction Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract Cost applicable only to those years health screenings are needed. Action lead(s): UF, FWS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s2.5.5 Monitor introduced populations to determine survival, growth, and reproductive success. Ongoing Current FY 2014 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Public and private universities, Other Research: Population Assessment, Research: Population Surveys, Research: Demographic Studies Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract Emergency action initiated in spring 2012 to grant University of Florida permission to collect Schaus eggs and resume captive rearing-related efforts. Approximately 70 adult butterflies were reared from eggs collected in 2013, of these 50 were released during the 2014 flight season, while 20 were retained for lab rearing to produce additional stock for the 2015 season. Approximately 900 individuals (471 adults, 378 late instar larvae) were reared from 2014 stock. These individuals were released during spring 2015 within BNP and northern Key Largo. In 2015, a total of 308 and 60 adults were observed on Biscayne NP and Key Largo, respectively. Additional individuals (51 larvae) were released on Elliott Key during 2016. In 2016: 62 adults were seen in the wild on BNP and 36 Key Largo. In 2017: 53 adults were observed on Key Largo and 24 Schaus adults were observed on BNP. Due to the low numbers observed in BNP in both 2016 and 2017, limited captive rearing was conducted in summer 2017. However, naturally occurring Schaus’ numbers increased to 438 individuals within the stronghold regions (Elliott Key within BNP and northern Key Largo). Therefore available captive bred stock will be released on additional islands within BNP, as well as at two locations on central Key Largo, such john Pennekamp State Park within the subspecies historic range. Over 350 adult Schaus’ were documented on northern and central Key Largo during the 2019 flight season, as well several hundred within Biscayne National Park. As a result of Schaus’ establishment on Key Largo and Biscayne National Park during 2019, captive reared stock was releases on Lignumvitae Key State Park, which represented returning the subspecies the southern extent of its historic range in the central keys. Action lead(s): UF, FDEP, FWC and FWS, NPS, (Biscayne NP)
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s3.1 Determine if the total population size is large enough to prevent functional extinction and genetic extinction. Ongoing Current FY 2012 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Public and private universities, Other Research Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract Surveys are ongoing to determine Schaus population size and genetic viability within its' remaining range. Action lead(s): universities, NPS, FWS, FWC, FDEP
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s3.2.2 Determine the necessary number of subpopulations and level of exchange that will enable Schaus swallowtail butterfly to persist for 100 years. Not Started Other U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Public and private universities Work type not yet selected Labor type not yet selected Action lead(s): universities
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s3.3 Examine factors that affect the abundance and distribution of the Schaus swallowtail butterfly. Ongoing Current FY 2012 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Public and private universities, Other Research: Population Assessment, Research: Ecosystem Studies, Research: Population Surveys, Research: Habitat Status, Research: Habitat Requirements, Research: Management Techniques, Research: Demographic Studies, Research: Propagation, Research: Reintroduction Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract Emergency action initiated in spring 2012 to grant University of Florida permission to collect Schaus eggs and resume captive rearing-related efforts. Approximately 70 adult butterflies were reared from eggs collected in 2013, of these 50 were released during the 2014 flight season, while 20 were retained for lab rearing to produce additional stock for the 2015 season. Approximately 900 individuals (471 adults, 378 late instar larvae) were reared from 2014 stock. These individuals were released during spring 2015 within BNP and northern Key Largo. In 2015, a total of 308 and 60 adults were observed on Biscayne NP and Key Largo, respectively. Additional individuals (51 larvae) were released on Elliott Key during 2016. In 2016: 62 adults were seen in the wild on BNP and 36 Key Largo. In 2017: 53 adults were observed on Key Largo and 24 Schaus adults were observed on BNP. Due to the low numbers observed in BNP in both 2016 and 2017, limited captive rearing was conducted in summer 2017. However, naturally occurring Schaus’ numbers increased to 438 individuals within the stronghold regions (Elliott Key within BNP and northern Key Largo). Therefore available captive bred stock will be released on additional islands within BNP, as well as at two locations on central Key Largo, such john Pennekamp State Park within the subspecies historic range. Over 350 adult Schaus’ were documented on northern and central Key Largo during the 2019 flight season, as well several hundred within Biscayne National Park. As a result of Schaus’ establishment on Key Largo and Biscayne National Park during 2019, captive reared stock was releases on Lignumvitae Key State Park, which represented returning the subspecies the southern extent of its historic range in the central keys. Action lead(s): UF, FDEP, FWC and FWS, NPS, (Biscayne NP)
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s3.4 Evaluate the effect of releasing captive-bred butterflies into the wild for the persistence of the Schaus swallowtail butterfly. Ongoing Current FY 2013 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Public and private universities, Other Research: Population Assessment, Research: Population Surveys, Research: Habitat Status, Research: Management Techniques, Research: Demographic Studies, Research: Propagation, Research: Reintroduction Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract Action lead(s): UF, FWS. FWC, NPS
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s3.5 Investigate the effects of insecticides used for mosquito control on surrogate species closely related to the Schaus swallowtail butterfly. Partially Complete FY 1995 - FY 1999 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, South Florida counties, Other Research: Environmental Contaminants Graduate Student, Species Expert, Contract Sufficient information is available to show that pesticides should not be used in areas occupied by ssbu. Action lead(s): FWS, universities
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s4.1 Monitor demographic parameters. Ongoing Current FY 2013 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Public and private universities, Other Research: Population Assessment, Research: Population Surveys, Research: Demographic Studies, Management: Population Monitoring Volunteer, Graduate Student, Species Expert Action lead(s): NPS (Biscayne NP), FWS (Key Largo), FDEP (Key Largo)
South Florida Multi-Species Recovery Plan (68 spp.) F 4 South Florida Ecological Services Field Office (772) 562-3909 Schaus swallowtail butterfly Heraclides aristodemus ponceanus 3 ssbu-s5.1 Increase public awareness and stewardship. Ongoing Current FY 2012 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Non-governmental organizations Other: Information and Education Volunteer, Species Expert In 2012, the FWS Coastal Program funded an effort to conduct habitat restoration on Elliott and Adams Keys (planting large amounts of Schaus hostplants) within Biscayne NP. Post-project monitoring indicated the exotic vegetation was reduced and hostplant reintroductions were success in some areas. However, disturbance from Hurricane Irma resulted in substantial availability of fresh hostplant (torchwood) growth and subsequent high densities of Schaus’ in 2018-19. In 2016, FDEP coordinated with the Service to restore over 6 acres of disturbed tropical hardwood hammock within Dagny Johnson Hammock Botanical Site on northern Key Largo. Restoration has been a success with increased hostplant and hardwood hammock vegetation. Schaus' abundance has also increased onsite to the point where the species can be found there, and further south. In 2019 spring flight period 361 adult Schaus’ were observed across Key Largo, as a result of prior captive releases, restoration work and but from new hostplant growth and availability brought from Irma disturbance (as occurred within Biscayne NP). Prior to these efforts Schaus' was rarely observed this far south of the island. Similar exotic vegetation and debris removal actions were planned on the Service side (Croc Lake NWR) of Key Largo for 2017-18. However, due to natural clearing and thinning of vegetation on northern Key Largo from Irma, natural vegetation was not required. As discussed above, monitoring has indicated that Schaus’ are responding favorably due to increased new growth (for larvae) in now thinned areas as light can now penetrate deeper into the canopy within the Refuge from debris removal, but especially from new hostplant growth and availability brought from Irma disturbance. Based on the success of Schaus’ distribution and abundance within Biscayne National Park and Key Largo, and additional reintroductions on Lignumvitae Key State Park in 2019, new areas were analyzed for future releases. Availability of torchwood (the primary hostplant) is a limiting factor in selecting sites for swallowtail re-establishment. Since torchwood has been lost in many locations, UF and Fairchild Tropical Gardens began hardwood hammock restoration efforts, including planting torchwood, at locations within the Schaus’ historic range. However, torchwood is slow growing and it will likely be many year before the Schaus’ will either naturally disperse to these areas or are reintroduced to them. Action lead(s): UF, FDEP, FWC and FWS, NPS, (Biscayne NP)